PANO - 10 battles and military campaigns, symbolising Vietnamese history during different periods after the 10th century, are being introduced at the Vietnam Military History Museum through collections of weapons and belongings, lively images and other exhibits.
Ribbon cutting ceremony to start the exhibition on "Famous battles and military campaigns in the history of Vietnam" on October 4th
PANO would like to introduce the 10 battles and military campaigns in brief:
A painting featuring the 10 battles and military campaigns
1. The Bach Dang Battle, in the year 938, was a fight between Vietnamese (called Tinh Hai Quan at that time), led by Ngo Quyen, and Nanhan invaders on the Bach Dang River, culminating the second resistance war against Nanhan invaders.
Ngo Quyen instructed his troops to place iron-headed spikes in the Bach Dang river-bed, which were invisible at high tide.
On a day in late winter of 938, Ngo Quyen ordered his soldiers to sail upstream, chased by aggressors, who were led by Hoang Thao. At low tide, Ngo Quyen commanded his troops to launch a counter-attack. The enemy’s large boats ran aground and were pierced by the stakes. The Nanhan soldiers were forced to flee.
Several weapons used in Bach Dang Battle in 938
The victory of Bach Dang in 938 ended the over 1,000-year rule by the Northern feudalists, opening a period of national independence and sovereignty.
In 939, Ngo Quyen founded the Ngo dynasty and settled in Co Loa (now in Dong Anh, Hanoi).
2. The Battle of Nhu Nguyet, in 1077, was a big counter-attack with a combination of navy and infantry. It was a decisive battle to bring our nation’s second resistance war against the Song invaders to an end. Various lessons related to Vietnam’s military arts, including initiative in defence and attack, were learnt from this battle.
Attentively, the famous poem, “Nam Quốc Sơn Hà” by Ly Thuong Kiet, confirmed the country’s sovereignty, independence and self-determination, as well as the national determination. The poem was regarded as Vietnam’s first Independence Declaration.
The above poem by Ly Thuong Kiet considered as Vietnam's first Independence Declaration 3. The Dong Bo Dau Battle, in 1258, was strategic and decisive to end the first resistance war of the Tran Dynasty against the Mongolian aggressors. That was the first defeat of the Mongolian Empire in its expedition against nearly 50 countries across the world.
The victory of Dong Bo Dau affirmed a truth that a small brave and smart country with national solidarity could win over a stronger one.
4. The Battle of Bach Dang, in 1288, was the biggest during the third resistance war against the Yuan dynasty established by the Mongolians.
The victory of Bach Dang crushed the scheme to turn our nation into a launching pad to invade other countries in the South. The victory stopped the Yuan Empire’s expansion over Southern East Asia.
Spikes used to prevent the enemy from sailing away in Bach Dang Battle in 1288 at low tide
5. The Chi Lang-Xuong Giang Battle, in 1427, was seen as a strategic battle to smash the Ming dynasty’s plan, forcing them to give up their plot of invading our country.
The victory of Chi Lang-Xuong Giang gave clear evidence about the military arts and pre-eminent strategies of our leaders in the 15th century. This victory showed remarkable efforts by the Lam Son insurgent army, led by Le Loi and Nguyen Trai.
After the decisive victory in Chi Lang-Xuong Giang, in early 1428, Nguyen Trai wrote “Bình Ngô đại cáo”, our country’s second Independence Declaration.
6. In the Battle of Rach Gam-Xoai Mut in 1785, Tay Son’s troops defeated the Xiem invaders. This was the biggest and most famous naval battle in our history of resistance wars against invaders. The battle proved the naval tradition of our ancestors.
Under the leadership of Quang Trung-Nguyen Hue, Tay Son righteous fighting men defeated Xiem and Qing invaders
7. The strategic victory of Ngoc Hoi-Dong Da in 1789 ended our nation’s resistance war against the Qing dysnasty’s invasion. This battle beautified the spirit of the bravely-fighting troops of Tay Son and the enthusiastic participation of local people, especially the talented military art of Quang Trung-Nguyen Hue and other Tay Son leaders.
8. The Dien Bien Phu Campaign in 1954 ended the Vietnamese army and people’s long-time and arduous resistance war against the French colonists.
War booty collected in the Dien Bien Phu Campaign in 1954
The historic victory of the Dien Bien Phu Campaign smashed the so-called “Navarre Plan” and the invasion will of the French colonists, paving the way for a diplomatic fight at the Geneva Conference.
This victory is an outstanding evidence of Vietnam’s military arts, especially in the Ho Chi Minh Era.
9. The Air Battle of Dien Bien Phu in 1972 was an air-defence campaign to win over the American imperialists’ strategic air attack. This is the most glorious victory of the Vietnamese people’s war against the American sabotage war.
Weapons, clothing and other belongings used in the Air Battle of Dien Bien Phu in 1972 along with a wreckage of an US airforce's B-52 bomber.
This victory marked the outstanding development of Vietnam’s Air-defence and Air-Force in all aspects, importantly contributing to developing Vietnam’s strategic arts, especially in air-defence strategies.
10. The Ho Chi Minh Campaign in 1975 was the greatest victory, ending the 21 years of hard resistance war against the American imperialists, opening a new era of independence, freedom and unification and the socialist construction of the nation.
The Ho Chi Minh Campaign in 1975 opened a new era of independence, freedom and unification for the country of Vietnam
President Ho Chi Minh said that “We have a right to be proud of the glorious history in the time of Ba Trung, Ba Trieu, Tran Hung Dao, Le Loi and Quang Trung, etc. We have to keep the national heroes’ service in our mind because they represent a heroic nation” and “Hung Kings had the merit of founding our country. You and I have to defend our country together”.